Below is a selection of literature regarding coercion in mental health care. We endeavour to update this list with new publications over time and add educational materials. Any suggestions for resources or educational aids would be very much appreciated.

It is not our aim that this list is exhaustive, as this can never be the case. It should, however, help you find some of the more important sources and start searching for more specific papers or articles as needed. We are always happy to be contacted with any questions and there is a link on the contact page.

Brief presentations

Below are some brief presentations made and presented by group members over recent years. While we hope they are objective and based on evidence, they are by definition our opinions as well. They bare just a selection, but hopefully again a useful introduction.


Coercion in psychiatry

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Supervised community treatment

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Force in the community:  findings from the OCTET trial.

Articles/Book chapters/ Books


  • Abel, W., Sewell, C., Thompson, E., Brown, T. 2011. “Mental health services in Jamaica: from institution to community”. Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care 4(3):103-111.Abel, W.D., Kestel. D., Eldemire-Shearer. D., Sewell. C., Whitehorne-Smith, P. 2012. “Mental health policy and service system development in the English-speaking Caribbean”. West Indian Medical Journal 61(5): 475-482.
  • Alem A. Human rights and psychiatric care in Africa with particular reference to the Ethiopian situation. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000: 101: 93±96.
  • Bak, J. and Aggernæs, H. 2012. Coercion within Danish psychiatry compared with 10 other European countries. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 66 (5): 297-302.
  • Bonnie, R. (2002) Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet union and in China: Complexities and controversies. Journal of the American academy of psychiatry and law, 30, 136-144.
  • Callaghan, S., & Ryan, C. J. (2012). Rising to the human rights challenge in compulsory treatment–new approaches to mental health law in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46(7), 611-620.
  • Chang, O. (2011). Mental health care in Fiji. Asia‐Pacific Psychiatry, 3(2), 73-75.
  • Chappell, D. (2010). From sorcery to stun guns and suicide: the eclectic and global challenges of policing and the mentally ill. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 11(4), 289-300.
  • Dawson, J., & Szmukler, G. (2006). Fusion of mental health and incapacity legislation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188(6), 504-509.
  • Diesfeld, K., & McKenna, B. (2006). The therapeutic intent of the New Zealand Mental Health Review Tribunal. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 13(1), 100-109.
  • Fennel, P. (1999) The Third Way in Mental Health Policy: Negative Rights, Positive Rights, and the Convention (1999) Journal of Law and Society, 26, 1, 103-127.
  • Frank, D., Perry, J.C., Kean, D., Sigman, M., Geagea, K. 2005. Effects of Compulsory Treatment Orders on Time to Hospital Readmission. Psychiatric Services 56: 867–869, 2005Galon, P., Wineman, N. M. 2011. Quasi-Experimental comparison of coercive interventions on client outcomes in individuals with severe and persistent mental illness. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 25(6):404-18.
  • Husum, T.L., Finset, A. and Ruud, T., 2008. The Staff Attitude to Coercion Scale (SACS): reliability, validity and feasibility. International journal of law and psychiatry, 31(5), pp.417-422.
  • I-Chen Tang and Hui- Ching Wu (2011) Social workers’ perceptions and experiences on the psychiatric disease mandatory assessment review committee: A qualitative study in Taiwan. International Social Work, 56 (5) 628-43.
  • Jeffery, R. (2013). Enduring tensions: transitional justice in the Solomon Islands. The Pacific Review, 26(2), 153-175.
  • Kallert et al: Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical and legal aspects. 2011. ISBN: 9780470660720 Book.
  • Kallert, T.W., Glöckner, M., Onchev, G., RABOCH, J., Karastergiou, A., SOLOMON, Z., MAGLIANO, L., Dembinskas, A., Kiejna, A., Nawka, P. and Torres-González, F., 2005. The EUNOMIA project on coercion in psychiatry: study design and preliminary data. World Psychiatry, 4(3), p.168.
  • Khazaal, Y., Manghi, R., Delahaye, M., Machado, A., Penzenstadler, L. and Molodynski, A., 2014. Psychiatric advance directives, a possible way to overcome coercion and promote empowerment. Frontiers in public health, 2.
  • Landeweer, E.G., Abma, T.A. and Widdershoven, G.A., 2011. Moral margins concerning the use of coercion in psychiatry. Nursing Ethics, 18(3), pp.304-316.
  • Lepping P & Raveesh B N. The Mysore declaration. International Psychiatry. 2013, Vol 10 No 4, 98-99. http://www.
  • Lindelius, B. and Björkenstam, E., 2012. P-644-Involuntary treatment in Swedish psyc Luciano, M., Sampogna, G., Del Vecchio, V., Pingani, L., Palumbo, C., De Rosa, C., Catapano, F. and Fiorillo, A., 2014. Use of coercive measures in mental health practice and its impact on outcome: a critical review. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 14(2), pp.131-141.hiatry. European Psychiatry, 27, p.1.
  • Moldavsky, D and Cohen, H. 2013. The new mental health  law in Argentina. In mental health law profiles, International Psychiatry 10, 11-13.
  • Molodynski A et al. Coercion and compulsion in mental healthcare- An international perspective. Asian J. Psychiatry (2013),
  • Molodynski, A., Khazaal, Y. and Callard, F., 2016. Coercion in mental healthcare: time for a change in direction. BJPsych International, 13, pp.1-3.
  • Molodynski, A., 2016. Regional themes. Coercion in Community Mental Health Care: International Perspectives, 942, p.153.
  • Nagaraja D & Murthy P (eds) (2008). Mental healthcare and human rights. New Delhi: National Human Rights Commission.
  • Newton-Howes G, Mullen R (2011). Coercion in Psychiatric Care: Systematic Review of Correlates and Themes.Psychiatric Services 62(5): 465-470.
  • Norredam, M., Garcia-Lopez, A., Keiding, N., Krasnik, A. 2010. Excess use of coercive measures in psychiatry among migrants compared with native Danes. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(2): 143-51.
  • Perlin, M. L. (2012). Promoting social change in Asia and the Pacific: The need for a disability rights tribunal to give life to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. George Washington International Law Review, 44, 1.
  • Perlin, M. L. (2013). Human rights law for persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The need for a disability rights tribunal. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(2), 96-98.
  • Poreddi V, Ramachandra, Reddemma K,Math SB (2013). People with mental illness and human rights: A developing countries perspective. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 55 (2), 117-124.
  • Prinsen EJ & van Delden JJ (2009). Can we justify eliminating coercive measures in psychiatry? J Med Ethics; 35(1):69-73.
  • Rhodes M. (2000) The nature of coercion. Journal of Value Inquiry 2000, 34, 369-81.
  • Richard, J., Bonnie, L.L.B.. 2002. Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union and in China: Complexities and Controversies. Journal of American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 30: pp. 136–44.
  • Richardson, E., & McSherry, B. (2010). Diversion down under—Programs for offenders with mental illnesses in Australia. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 33(4), 249-257.
  • Richardson, E., Thom, K., & McKenna, B. (2013). The evolution of problem-solving courts in Australia and New Zealand: A trans-Tasman comparative perspective. In: R. L. Weiner and E. M. Branks (Eds). Problem Solving Courts (pp. 185-210). Springer New Richardson G (2007).Coercion and human rights: a European perspective. J Mental health Law 17: 245–254. York.
  • Rose D, Evans J, Sweeney A, Wykes T (2011). A model for developing outcome measures from the perspectives of mental health service users. International Review of Psychiatry 23(1), 41–46.
  • Sathyanarayana Rao TS, Kallilvayalil RA, Andrade C (2012). Covert medication: Do means justify the ends? Indian Journal of Psychiatry 54(3), 203-205.

ïScheyetta, S. J., Swartz, M., Elbogen, E., Van, D. R., Ferron, J. (2009). Autonomy and the use of directive Intervention in the treatment of individuals with serious mental illnesses: A survey of social work practitioners. Social Work in Mental Health, 7(4), 283-306.

  • Seo M K, Kim S H, Rhee M (2013). Coercion in psychiatric care: Can paternalism justify coercion? International Journal of Social Psychiatry 59 (3): 217-23.
  • Shah R and Basu D (2010). Coercion in psychiatric care: Global and Indian perspective. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 52: 203-206.
  • Sharma S & Chadda RK, editors. Indian Mental Health Act, 1987 – A Critique. Delhi: Institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences; 1996. 101-12.
  • Sjostrom S. (2006). Invocation of coercion context in compliance communication- Power dynamics in psychiatric care. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 29 (1): 36-47.
  • Szmukler G, Appelbaum P. Treatment pressures, leverage, coercion, and compulsion in mental health care (2008). J Mental Health (2008). 17:233–44.
  • Szmukler, G., Daw, R. & Callard, F. (2013). Mental health law and the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry,
  • Szmukler, G. (2004). Mental health legislation in the era of community psychiatry. Psychiatry, 3(3), 16-19.
  • Taiwan Association for Human Rights. (1990). Taiwan Association for Human Rights.    Taiwan Human Rights Reports, 1987–1990. Taipei.
  • Tang, I. C., Wu, H. C. (2009). Social workers’ perceptions and experiences on the psychiatric disease mandatory assessment review committee: A qualitative study in Taiwan, International Social Work, 56(5), 628-643.
  • Tannsjo, T., 2004. The convention on human rights and biomedicine and the use of coercion in psychiatry. Journal of medical ethics, 30(5), pp.430-434.
  • Weerasundera R (2011). Mental health legislation in Sri Lanka: the time for change is now, Sri Lankan Journal of Psychiatry; 2 (2):43-44.


Fiorillo, A., De Rosa, C., Del Vecchio, V., Jurjanz, L., Schnall, K., Onchev, G., Alexiev, S., Raboch, J., Kalisova, L., Mastrogianni, A., Georgiadou, E., Solomon, Z., Dembinskas, A., Raskauskas, V., Nawka, P., Nawka, A., Kiejna, A., Hadrys, T., Torres-Gonzales, F., Mayoral, F., Björkdahl, A., Kjellin, L., Priebe, S., Maj, M., Kallert, T. 2011. How to improve clinical practice on involuntary hospital admissions of psychiatric patients: suggestions from the EUNOMIA study. European Psychiatry. 26 (4):  201-7.

Fiorillo, A., Giacco, D., De Rosa, C., Kallert, T., Katsakou, C., Onchev, G., Raboch, J., Mastrogianni, A., Del Vecchio, V., Luciano, M., Catapano, F., Dembinskas, A., Nawka, P., Kiejna, A., Torres-Gonzales, F., Kjellin, L., Maj, M., Priebe, S. 2012. Patient characteristics and symptoms associated with perceived coercion during hospital treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 125 (6): pp. 460-467.

  • Gardner W, Hoge S, Bennett N et al 1993. Two scales for measuring patients’ perceptions for coercion during Mental health admission. Behavioural Sciences and the law, 11, 307-321.
  • Gilburt H, Rose D, Slade M (2008). The importance of relationships in mental health care: A qualitative study of service users’ experiences of psychiatric hospital admission in the UK. BMC Health Services research. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963/8/92.
  • Husum, T.L., Bjørngaard, J.H., Finset, A., Ruud, T. 2010. A cross-sectional prospective study of seclusion, restraint and involuntary medication in acute psychiatric wards: patient, staff and ward characteristics. BMC Health Services Research, 10: 89.
  • Husum, T., Bjørngaard, J., Finset, A., Ruud, T. 2011. Staff attitudes and thoughts about the use of coercion in acute psychiatric wards. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46 (9): 893-901.
  • Iheanacho, T., Marienfeld C., Stefanovics, E., Rosenheck, R. A,.  Attitudes Toward Mental Illness and Changes Associated with a Brief Educational Intervention for Medical and Nursing Students in Nigeria.  Academic Psychiatry.  2014; 38 (3): 320-324.
  • Jaeger, S., Pfiffner, C., Weiser, P., Längle, G., Croissant, D., Schepp, W., Kilian, R., Becker, T., Eschweiler, G., Steinert, T. 2013. Long-term effects of involuntary hospitalization on medication adherence, treatment engagement and perception of coercion. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48 (11): 1787-1796.
  • Aytenew Debebe Jemberu. Behind Closed Doors: The Human Rights Conditions of Persons with Mental Disabilities in Ethiopian Psychiatric Facilities. Jimma University, Journal of Law, (2014), Vol 5.
  • Kallert TW, Katsakou C, Adamowski T, Dembinskas A, Fiorillo A, et al. (2011) Coerced Hospital Admission and Symptom Change—A Prospective Observational Multi-Centre Study. PLoS ONE 6(11): e28191. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028191.
  • Katsakou, C.,  Rose, D.,  Amos, T., Bowers, L., McCabe, R., Oliver, D., Wykes, T., Priebe , S. 2012. Psychiatric patients’ views on why their involuntary hospitalisation was right or wrong: a qualitative study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47: 1169 – 1179.
  • Keller, R. C.  Pinel in the Maghreb: Liberation, Confinement, and Psychiatric Reform in French North Africa.  Bulletin of the History of Medicine.  2005; 79 (3) 459-499.
  • Keski-Valkama, A., Sailas, E., Eronen, M., Koivisto, A.M., Lönnqvist, J. and Kaltiala-Heino, R., 2007. A 15-year national follow-up: legislation is not enough to reduce the use of seclusion and restraint. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 42(9), pp.747-75.
  • Killaspy H, White S, Wright C, Taylor TL, Turton P, et al. (2012) Quality of Longer Term Mental Health Facilities in Europe: Validation of the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care against Service Users’ Views. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38070. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038070.
  • Lee, C. Y., Chou, F. H. C. (2003). The exploration of ambiguity of Mental Health Act on the compulsory admission: the case of psychiatric patient hospitalization Journal of Law and Medicine, 10(3), 42-
  • Liu, R. Y., Tsai, K. Y., Chou, F. H. C., Ho, W. W., Chen, W. J., Chen, C. C. (2010). The characteristics of severe mentally Ill patients who need forced hospitalization before and after the amended mental health act in Taiwan. Taiwanese Journal of Psychiatry (Taipei), 24(2), 131-139.
  • Lorant, V., Depuydt, C., Gillain, B., Guillet, A., Dubois, V. (2007). Involuntary commitment in psychiatric care: What drives the decision? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(5), 360-365.
  • Lund, C., Sutcliffe, T., Flisher, A.J., Stein, D.J.  Protecting the rights of the mentally ill in poorly resourced settings: experiences from four African countries. In Dudley, M., Silove, D., & Gale, F. (eds.) Mental Health and Human Rights: Vision, Praxis and Courage. Sydney: Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN: 978-0-19-921396-2.
  • Martin, V., Bernhardsgrütter, R., Goebel, R. and Steinert, T., 2007. The use of mechanical restraint and seclusion in patients with schizophrenia: a comparison of the practice in Germany and Switzerland. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 3(1), p.1.
  • Monahan J., Hoge S.K., Lidz C.W., Roth L.H., Bennett N.S., Gardner W.P., & Mulvey E.P. (1995) Coercion and commitment: understanding involuntary mental hospital admission. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry,1995, 18:1- 15.
  • Moses Mulumba. Analysis of the Uganda Mental Treatment act from a Human rights and Public Health perspective 2007;
  • Westbrook, Andrew Hudson. Mental health legislation and compulsory commitment in Nigeria: a call for reform. Washington Global Studies Law Review; 2011:10:2: 397.
  • O’Donoghue B et al (2013). Service user’s perceptions about their hospital admission elicited by service user-researchers or by clinicians. Psychiatric Services; 64(5): 416-22.
  • O’Donoghue B et al (2010). Involuntary admission from the patients’ perspective. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45 (6): 631–8.
  • O’Donoghue B et al (2011). Physical coercion, perceived pressures and procedural justice in the involuntary admission and future engagement with mental health services. European Psychiatry; 26(4): 208–14.
  • O’Donoghue B, John Lyne, Michele Hill et al. Perception of involuntary admission and risk of subsequent readmission at one-year follow up: the influence of insight and recovery style. Journal of Mental Health, 2011, June; 20 (3):249-59.
  • O’Donoghue, B., Roche, E., Shannon, S., Lyne, J., Madigan, K. and Feeney, L., 2014. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission. Psychiatry research, 215(1), pp.120-126.
  • Rüsch, N.,  Müller, M., Lay, B., Corrigan, P.W., Zahn, R., Schonberg, T., Bleiker, M., Lengler, S., Blank, C., Rossler, W. 2013. Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 264 (1): 35-43.
  • Schoevaerts, K., Bruffaerts, R., Van Landeghem, K., Vandenberghe, J. and Community, F., 2012. P-631-Epidemiology and predictors of compulsory admissions in Flanders, Belgium. a general-population perspective (2007–2009). European Psychiatry, 27, p.1.
  • Sjostrom S. (2006). Invocation of coercion context in compliance communication- Power dynamics in psychiatric care. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 29 (1): 36-47.
  • Steinert, T., Lepping, P., Bernhardsgrütter, R., Conca, A., Hatling, T., Janssen, W., Keski-Valkama, A., Mayoral, F., Whittington, R. 2010. Incidence of seclusion and restraint in psychiatric hospitals: a literature review and survey of international trends. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45 (9): 889-897.
  • Wynn, R., Kvalvik, A-M., Hynnekleiv, T. 2011. Attitudes to coercion at two Norwegian psychiatric units. Nord Journal of Psychiatry, 65: 133–137.


  • Angell B, Martinez NI, Mahoney CA, Corrigan PW. Payeeship, financial leverage, and the client-provider relationship (2007). Psychiatric services. doi: 10.1176/
  • Burns T, Rugkasa J, Molodynski A, Dawson J, Yeeles K, Vazquez- Monte M, Voysey M, Sinclair J, Priebe S (2013). Community treatment orders for patients with psychosis (OCTET): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 381: 1627-1633.
  • Burns, T., Yeeles, K., Molodynski, A., Nightingale, H., Vazquez-Montes, M., Sheehan, K. and Linsell, L., 2011. Pressures to adhere to treatment (‘leverage’) in English mental healthcare. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199(2), pp.145-150.
  • Burns, T., Yeeles, K., Koshiaris, C., Vazquez-Montes, M., Molodynski, A., Puntis, S., Vergunst, F., Forrest, A., Mitchell, A., Burns, K. and Rugkåsa, J., 2015. Effect of increased compulsion on readmission to hospital or disengagement from community services for patients with psychosis: follow-up of a cohort from the OCTET trial. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(10), pp.881-890.
  • Coyle, D., Macpherson, R., Foy, C., Molodynski, A., Biju, M. and Hayes, J., 2013. Compulsion in the community: mental health professionals’ views and experiences of CTOs. The Psychiatrist Online, 37(10), pp.315-321.
  • Dawson J (2005). Community Treatment Orders: International Comparisons. Otago University Press.
  • Dawson J (2006). Factors influencing the rate of use of community treatment orders. Psychiatry 6: 42–44.
  • Firn, M. and Molodynski, A., 2011. Personal autonomy, leverage and coercion. Assertive Outreach in Mental Healthcare: Current Perspectives.
  • Gray, J.E., Shone, M.A. & O’Reilly, R.L.  2012. “Alberta’s Community Treatment Orders:  Canadian and international comparisons”, Health Law Review, 20(2):13-21.
  • Hsieh, M.H., Wu, H.C., Chou, F.H.C. and Molodynski, A., 2016. A Cross Cultural Comparison of Attitude of Mental Healthcare Professionals Towards Involuntary Treatment Orders. Psychiatric Quarterly, pp.1-11.
  • Kallert TW, Katsakou C, Adamowski T, Dembinskas A, Fiorillo A, et al. (2011) Coerced Hospital Admission and Symptom Change—A Prospective Observational Multi-Centre Study. PLoS ONE 6(11): e28191. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028191.
  • Katsakou, C. and Priebe, S., 2006. Outcomes of involuntary hospital admission–a review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(4), pp.232-241.
  • Killaspy H, White S, Wright C, Taylor TL, Turton P, et al. (2012) Quality of Longer Term    Mental Health Facilities in Europe: Validation of the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care against Service Users’ Views. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38070. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038070.
  • Kisely S, Campbell L, Preston N (2005). Compulsory community and involuntary outpatient treatment for patients with severe mental health disorders. Cochrane Database Systematic Review.
  • Steve Kisely, Jianguo Xiao, Elizabeth Crowe, Anita Paydar,
    Le Jian (2013). The effect of community treatment orders on outcome as assessed by the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, Psychiatry Research,
  • Light, E., Kerridge, I., Ryan, C., & Robertson, M. (2011). Community treatment orders in Australia: rates and patterns of use. Australasian Psychiatry, 20(6), 478-482.
  • Macpherson R, Molodynski A, Freeth R, Uppal A, Steer H, Buckle D, Jones A (2010). Supervised community treatment: guidance for clinicians. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 16: 253-59. 10.1192/apt.bp.109.007203.
  • Manning C, Molodynski A, Rugkasa J, Dawson J, Burns T (2011). Community treatment orders in England and Wales: national survey of clinicians’ views and use. The Psychiatrist, 35: 328-33. doi: 10.1192/pb.bp.110.032631.
  • Maughan, D., Molodynski, A., Rugkåsa, J., Burns, T. 2013. A systematic review of the effect of community treatment orders on service use. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49 (4): p651-663.
  • McIvor, R. (1998). The community treatment order: clinical and ethical issues. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32(2), 223-228.
  • Molodynski, Rugkasa, and Burns (2010). Coercion and compulsion in community mental health care. British Medical Bulletin.
  • Monahan J et al. (2001). Mandated Community treatment: beyond outpatient commitment. Psychiatric services. 52: 1198-1205.
  • Monahan J, Redlich A, Swanson J et al (2005). Use of leverage to improve adherence to psychiatric treatment in the community. Psychiatr Serv 44: 56-37.
  • Morrissey, J.P., Desmarais, S.L., Domino, M.E.  2014. “Outpatient commitment and its alternatives: questions yet to be answered”. Psychiatric Services 65(6):812-815.
  • Moser, L. L., Bond, G. R. 2009. “Scope of agency control: Assertive community treatment teams’ supervision of consumers”. Psychiatric Services, 60(7): 922-928.
  • Mullen Richard, Gibbs Anita, Dawson John (2006). Family perspective on community treatment orders: A New Zealand study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 52:469-478.
  • Nagra, M.K., Pillinger, T., Prata-Ribeiro, H., Khazaal, Y. and Molodynski, A., 2016. Community Treatment Orders—A pause for thought. Asian journal of psychiatry, 24, pp.1-4.
  • Nakhost, A., Perry, J.C., Frank, D. 2012. “Assessing the outcome of community treatment orders on management of psychiatric patients at 2 McGill University –affiliated hospitals”. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 57(6):359-365.
  • O’Brien, A. J., Kydd, R. R., & Frampton, C. (2011). Social deprivation and use of mental health legislation in New Zealand. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 58(6), 581-586.
  • O’Brien, A. J. (2014). Community treatment orders in New Zealand: regional variability and international comparisons. Australasian Psychiatry, 22(4), 352-356.
  • O’Brien, A.M. Farrell, S.J. 2005.  “Community treatment orders: profile of a Canadian experience”. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 50(1):27–30.
  • O’Reilly, R.L.  2001. “Seven deadly sins of mental health reform”. Canadian Psychiatric Association Bulletin 33(3):17-20.
  • O’Reilly, R., Dawson, J., Burns, T.  2012. “Best practices in the use of involuntary outpatient treatment”.  Psychiatric Services 63(5):421-423.
  • O’Reilly, R.L., Gray, J.E.  2014. “Canada’s mental health legislation”. International Psychiatry 11(3):65-67.
  • Phelan JC, Sinkewicz M, Castille DM et al (2010). Effectiveness and outcomes of assisted outpatient treatment in New York state. Psychiatr Serv 61: 137–143.
  • Rawalla M, Gupta S (2014). Use of community treatment orders in an inner-London assertive outreach service. The Psychiatric Bulletin 38:13-18.
  • Richardson G (2007).Coercion and human rights: a European perspective. J Mental health Law 17: 245–254.
  • Rugkåsa J, Canvin K, Sinclair J, Sulman A, Burns T (2014). Trust, Deals and Authority: Community Mental Health Professionals’ Experiences of Influencing Reluctant Patients. Community Mental Health Journal 5(3).
  • Segal, S. P., & Burgess, P. B. (2006). Extended outpatient civil commitment and treatment utilization. Social Work in Health Care, 43(2/3), 37-51.
  • Segal, S. P., Preston, N., Kisely, S., & Xiao, J. (2009). Conditional release in Western Australia: Effect on hospital length of stay. Psychiatric Services, 60(1), 94-99.
  • Segal S.P, Burgess P.M (2008). Use of community treatment orders to prevent psychiatric hospitalization. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 42: 732-739.
  • Sjostrom S, Zetterberg L, Markstrom U. (2011). Why community compulsion became the solution- Reforming mental health law in Sweden. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 34 (6): 419-28.
  • Sjöström, S., Zetterberg, L., & Markström, U. (2011). Why community compulsion became the solution – Reforming mental health law in Sweden. International journal of law and psychiatry, 34(6), 419-428.
  • Stettin, B., Geller, J., Ragosta, K., Cohen, K., Ghowrwal, J. Mental health commitment laws a survey of the states. Treatment Advocacy Centre. Accessed November 25, 2014:
  • Swanson J.W, Van Dorn R.A, Monahan J, Swartz M.S (2006). Violence and leveraged community treatment for persons with mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 : 1404-1411.
  • Swanson Jeffrey W, Van Dorn Richard A, Swartz Marvin S, Cislo Andrew M, Wilder Christine M, Moser Lorna L, Gilbert Allison R, McGuire Thomas G (2010). Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: Did New York State’s outpatient commitment program crowd out voluntary service recipients? Psychiatric Services, 61: 988-995.
  • Swartz, M., Wilder, C., Swanson, J., Van Dorn, R., Clark Robbins, P., Steadman, H., Moser, L., Gilbert, A., & Monahan, J. (2010). Assessing Outcomes for Consumers in New York’s Assisted Outpatient Treatment Program, Psychiatric Services, 61 (10), 976-981.
  • Swartz M, Swanson J, Wagner H et al (1999). Can involuntary outpatient commitment reduce hospital recidivism? Findings from a randomized trial with severely mentally ill individuals. Am J Psychiatry 156:1968–1975.
  • Thompson, M., Osher, F., Tomasini-Joshi, D. 2007.  Improving responses to people with mental illnesses the essential elements of a mental health court.  A report prepared by the Council of State Governments Justice Center. New York.  Accessed August 25, 2014:
  • Valenti, E., Banks, C., Calcedo-Barba, A., Bensimon, C.M., Hoffmann, K.M., Pelto-Piri, V., Jurin, T., Mendoza, O.M., Mundt, A.P., Rugkåsa, J. and Tubini, J., 2015. Informal coercion in psychiatry: a focus group study of attitudes and experiences of mental health professionals in ten countries. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 50(8), pp.1297-1308.
  • Zinkler, M., 2016. Germany without Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry—A 15 Month Real World Experience. Laws, 5(1), p.15.


  • Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as amended by Protocol No. 11 with Protocol Nos. 1,4,6,7,12 and13. Registry of The European Court of Human Rights, 2003.
  • United Nations, 1948, Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
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